Books

How Americans Make Race HOW AMERICANS MAKE RACE*
by Clarissa Rile Hayward
Cambridge University Press, 234 Pages
ISBN-10: 1107619580
ISBN-13: 978-1107619586

*Winner of the American Political Science Association’s Prize for Best Book on Urban Politics Published in 2013

How do people produce and reproduce identities? In How Americans Make Race, Clarissa Rile Hayward challenges what is sometimes called the “narrative identity thesis”: the idea that people produce and reproduce identities as stories. Identities have greater staying power than one would expect them to have if they were purely and simply narrative constructions, she argues, because people institutionalize identity-stories, building them into laws, rules, and other institutions that give social actors incentives to perform their identities well, and because they objectify identity-stories, building them into material forms that actors experience with their bodies. Drawing on in-depth historical analyses of the development of racialized identities and spaces in the twentieth-century United States, and also on life-narratives collected from people who live in racialized urban and suburban spaces, Hayward shows how the institutionalization and objectification of racial identity-stories enables their practical reproduction, lending them resilience in the face of challenge and critique.

Justice and the American Metropolis

JUSTICE AND THE AMERICAN METROPOLISGlobalization and Community (Book 18)
edited by Clarissa Rile Hayward and Todd Swanstrom
University Of Minnesota Press, 288 pages
ISBN-10: 0816676135
ISBN-13: 978-0816676132

Today’s American cities and suburbs are the sites of “thick injustice”—unjust power relations that are deeply and densely concentrated as well as opaque and seemingly intractable. Thick injustice is hard to see, to assign responsibility for, and to change. Identifying these often invisible and intransigent problems, this volume addresses foundational questions about what justice requires in the contemporary metropolis. Essays focus on inequality within and among cities and suburbs; articulate principles for planning, redevelopment, and urban political leadership; and analyze the connection between metropolitan justice and institutional design. In a world that is progressively more urbanized, and yet no clearer on issues of fairness and equality, this book points the way to a metropolis in which social justice figures prominently in any definition of success. Contributors: Susan S. Fainstein, Harvard U; Richard Thompson Ford, Stanford U; Gerald Frug, Harvard U; Loren King, Wilfrid Laurier U; Margaret Kohn, U of Toronto; Stephen Macedo, Princeton U; Douglas W. Rae, Yale U; Clarence N. Stone, George Washington U; Margaret Weir, U of California, Berkeley; Thad Williamson, U of Richmond.

De-Facing PowerDE-FACING POWER
by Clarissa Rile Hayward
Cambridge University Press, 228 Pages
ISBN-10: 0521785642
ISBN-13: 978-0521785648

In this major contribution to the power debate, Clarissa Rile Hayward challenges the prevailing view of power as something powerful people have and use. Rather than seeing it as having a “face,” she argues for a view of power as a complex network of social boundaries–norms, identities, institutions–which define individual freedom, for “powerful” and “powerless” alike. The book’s argument is supported by a comparative analysis of relationships within two ethnically-diverse educational settings–a low-income, predominantly African-American urban school; and an affluent, predominantly white, suburban school.